If you’re looking into retirement plans, you’re probably familiar with traditional IRAs. You may have heard about Roth IRAs, too. But when considering Roth IRAs vs. traditional IRAs—do you know the specific differences in the two plans? Both have a few of the same attributes, but the differences lie in how contributions and distributions are taxed. This article compares the two plans to help you decide which best suits your retirement planning needs.
Roth IRAs vs. Traditional IRAs at a Glance
- Contribution limits to both plans are the same: For 2022, the contribution limit is $6,000 with an extra $1,000 if you’re 50 or older. In 2023, that limit rises to $6,500 with the same catch-up of $1,000.
- You can make contributions to either plan by April 15 of the following year to count towards the previous year’s income tax liability. (The deadline to file your 2022 taxes is April 18, 2023).
- You must have earned income in order to contribute to either account.
- Both offer tax-sheltered earnings on investments.
- Thanks to the new tax laws, you can contribute to either account after you reach retirement age provided you still work and have earned income.
- Either account can be self-directed to invest in alternative assets like real estate, private equity, private lending, and more.
Features of Traditional IRAs
- Contributions are tax deductible if you meet the criteria.
- Earnings within the account grow tax deferred, allowing you to grow your account more quickly.
- Distributions of contributions and earnings are taxed as ordinary income in retirement.
- You must begin taking required minimum distributions (RMDs) at age 72 if you turned 70 ½ after December 31, 2019. But the SECURE Act 2.0 extended that age to 73 for those who turn 73 in 2023 or later.
- Early withdrawals before you reach age 59 ½ incur a 10 percent penalty along with tax.
- There are no income limitations for making annual contributions to this account.
Features of Roth IRAs
- Contributions are not tax deductible.
- Distributions of contributions and earnings in the account are tax-free in retirement.
- Unlike traditional IRAs, you are not required to take required distributions at any age.
- You can pass a Roth IRA to your heirs for them to enjoy tax-free distributions, as well.
- You can take tax and penalty-free distributions of earnings if you’re over 59 ½ and have owned the account for 5 years.
- Tax-free withdrawals of contributions can be taken at any age for any reason.
To contribute to a Roth IRA, your modified adjusted gross income (MAGI) must fall within certain income ranges depending on your tax filing status.
To max out the full annual contribution limits, your MAGI must be as follows:
- 2022 Roth income limits for married filing jointly is less than $204,000; single/head of household is less than $129,000
- 2023 income limits for married filing jointly less than $218,000; single/head of household less than $138,000
You can make reduced contributions if your MAGI is:
- 2022 married filing jointly with a MAGI of $204,000 or more, but less than less $214,000; single head of household $129,000 but less than $144,000
- 2023 married filing jointly $218,000 or more, but less than $228,000; single head of household $138,00 but less than $153,000
Roth IRAs vs. Traditional IRAs: How to Decide
The questions to ask yourself when comparing Roth IRAs vs. traditional IRAs are important in choosing which account is best for you.
Do you want to defer paying taxes until you retire because you are in a higher tax bracket now? Or would you like the ability to take tax-free distributions in your golden years because you fear higher tax rates in the future?
If you expect to find yourself in a higher tax bracket in retirement, you may find a Roth IRA is the most beneficial plan for you. If you are looking for a tax deduction now and prefer the immediate tax relief that a traditional IRA provides—then there is your choice.
If your situation changes in the future, you can always perform a Roth conversion of your traditional IRA funds. These transactions can be a smart move, but there are tax implications when converting those funds, so consult your tax professional to help you decide.
Maximize the Investing Power of Your IRA
Whether you choose a Roth or a traditional IRA—you have the option to self-direct either account. Self-directed Roth and self-directed traditional IRAs have all the features each account lists above. But the extra power that self-direction gives you is huge.
Conventional IRAs are limited to assets chosen and/or sold by the plan custodian, and those assets are typically stocks, bonds, and mutual funds. Self-directed IRAs are not restricted to those assets. In fact, there are thousands of alternative investments available for self-directed retirement plans.
As the account owner, you get to choose assets for the plan instead of relying on the plan administrator or custodian to make those decisions for you (hence the term “self-directed”). And, you have the freedom to invest in things you know and understand. Imagine putting your own knowledge to work and investing in tangible assets, like real estate and gold, to build retirement wealth.
Have Questions about Self-Directed IRAs? Advanta IRA Has Answers
Advanta IRA is a leader in self-directed IRA administration with over $2 billion in client assets under management. Contact us today to schedule your free consultation and learn how self-directed IRAs, 401(k)s, and other self-directed plans can help you build the retirement savings you deserve.